This glossary includes terms and definitions for IBM
The following cross-references are used in this glossary:
- See refers you from a term to a preferred synonym, or from an acronym or abbreviation to the defined full form.
- See also refers you to a related or contrasting term.
To view glossaries for other IBM
products, go to www.ibm.com/software/globalization/terminology
(opens in new window).
The ability to read, update, or otherwise use a resource. Access to protected resources is usually controlled by system software.access level
In computer security, the level of authority a user has while accessing a secured file or library.action
- A single step that specifies a unit of work in a collaboration business process.
- A defined task that an application performs on an object as a result of an event.
One of the accent marks in Latin script (´).add
To expand the scope of a class, or to include further items into a list.adjust
To alter or regulate something so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard.administrator
A person responsible for administrative tasks such as access authorization and content management. Administrators can also grant levels of authority to users.align
To position objects or text relative to some point, such as the page margin.application
- A measurable and controllable unit of work that completes a specific user task, such as the running of payroll or financial statements. The smallest entity that an application can be broken down into is an operation. Generally, several related operations make up an application.
- A measurable and controllable unit of work that completes a specific user task.
- One or more computer programs or software components that provide a function in direct support of a specific business process or processes.
- A part of the user interface dedicated to a particular purpose.
- The cell range to be used or referenced. Areas are the container for data.
A value passed to or returned from a function or procedure at run time.array
A linked range of cells on a spreadsheet containing values. For example, a square range of 3 rows and 3 columns is a 3 x 3 array.array formula
A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results.ascend
To arrange data in order from the lowest value to the highest value, according to the rules for comparing data.
A visual boundary that separates a displayed object from everything else on a screen.browse
To look at information without changing it.browser
A client program that initiates requests to a web server and displays the information that the server returns.button
A graphic that executes an action when clicked.
- To end a task before it is completed.
- To close an object or to end a task before it is completed.
The basic unit of analysis. In a data set based on a simple survey, a case generally corresponds to a respondent.cell range
The scope that contains one cell or multiple cells.character
Any symbol that can be entered on a keyboard, printed, or displayed. For example, letters, numbers, and punctuation marks are all characters.check
- To look for a condition.
- To determine whether a component is appropriate or meets the necessary requirements.
An area of computer memory, or storage, that temporarily holds data. Data in the clipboard is available to other applications.close
To end an activity and remove that window from the display.co-edit
To edit the same file simultaneously by multiple editors.column
The vertical component of a database table. A column has a name and a particular data type (for example, character, decimal, or integer).comma
- In REXX, a token that represents the continuation character, a separator of arguments in an argument list, or a separator in a parsing template.
- A token that represents a separator of arguments in an argument list or decimal separator.
An annotation attached to an artifact, element, or a collection of elements.community
An online site where people share ideas or get answers to their questions.component
A software item that is part of a software product, and might be separately identified, but is not individually licensed.copy
To read data from a source, leaving the source data unchanged, and to write the same data elsewhere.criterion
A standard on which a judgment or decision may be based.cursor
A movable symbol on a display, often a blinking or solid block of light, that identifies a choice to select, indicates where user interaction with the keyboard will appear, or indicates a position of interest on the display surface.
A representation of facts or instructions in a form suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or automatic means. Data includes constants, variables, arrays, and character strings.default
A value that is automatically supplied or assumed by the system or program when the user does not specify a value.descend
To arrange data in order from the highest value to the lowest value, according to the rules for comparing data.dialog
A series of related inquiries and responses between a user and an application, similar to a conversation between two people.display
To present data visually.document
Any collection of data stored in a document object. A document can contain any type of data.download
To transfer data from a computer to a connected device, such as a workstation or personal computer.draft
- An incomplete offering that is a work in progress.
- An incomplete offering that is a work in progress. A draft must be published before it can be used to complete a service level agreement.
To use a pointing device to move an object. For example, a user can drag a window border to make it larger by holding a button pointing device while moving the pointing device.
To add, change, delete, rearrange, or modify the form or format of data.editor
An application that enables a user to modify existing data.element
A part of a larger or more complex unit.entry
- A single input operation on a workstation.
- An element of information in a table, list, queue, or other organized structure of data or control information.
A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition.error value
The words that describe the error of the cell content, such as #N/A, #DIV/0 or #Err 522.event
An occurrence of significance to a task or system. Events can include completion or failure of an operation, a user action, or the change in state of a process. See also message.expand
- To display information collapsed under a category name or parent document.
- To return compressed data to its original form.
A labeled subset of concrete, functional software characteristics (function, interface, property, event, and so forth) or nonfunctional software characteristics (scalability, portability, performance, and so forth) of a specific common component, assembly, or offering.field
An area into which a particular category of data or control information is entered.file
A collection of related data that is stored and retrieved by an assigned name.file name
A name assigned to identify a file.font
A family or assortment of characters of a given size and style, for example, 9-point Bodoni modern.footer
Text that is formatted to be in the bottom margin of printed pages in a document. See also header.format
- The arrangement or layout of data in a data medium.
- The structure or organization of data in a file.
In text processing, the capability of a text editor that allows the preparation of the layout of text according to criteria specified by the user.formula
An expression that has program-like attributes; for example, a formula can be used to assign values to variables and use a limited control logic.function
- A built-in formula that performs specialized calculations automatically.
- Any instruction or set of related instructions that performs a specific operation.
A name that is used to identify an individual within a group, such as a family. A person can have multiple given names.graphic
Image, text, or a combination of both that can be placed in a document.
Text that is formatted to be in the top margin of printed pages in a document. See also footer.heading
A constant, field, or text that identifies information, usually at the top of a page or display, or at the beginning of a chapter or section.hide
To remove a window and all its associated windows from the desktop.highlight
To emphasize a display element or segment by changing its visual attributes.hyperlink
An element in an electronic document, such as a web page that links to another area in that document or a different document.
A graphic symbol, displayed on a screen, that a user can point to with a device such as a mouse in order to select a particular function or software application.image
An electronic representation of an original document or picture produced by a scanning device or created from software.import
To bring information from one system or program into another.information
The meaning that a human assigns to data by means of the conventions used in their representation.insert
To introduce data between previously stored items of data.integer
A positive or negative whole number, or zero.
A word that is used to conduct searching operations.
A set of characters, conventions, and rules that is used for conveying information.launch
To deploy an application to its production environment so that it can be used.layout
A geometric arrangement of components on the screen. A layout often attempts to minimize overlap between the components.level
A set of one or more related attributes that work together as one logical step in a hierarchy. Attributes can function in one or more roles in a level.link
A connection that provides the physical transfer of data from one node to another.load
To bring all or part of a computer program into memory from auxiliary storage so that the computer can run the program.lock
To temporarily restrict resources to provide protection from concurrent users of the system.
A slide view or page on which formatting for all slides or pages in a presentation is defined.master style
A style that defines the layout and common elements for a master.menu
A displayed list of items from which a user can make a selection.merge
- To update and insert new content into a table.
- To combine the items of two or more sets that are each in the same given order into one set in that order.
A communication sent from a person or program to another person or program.
To provide direction to a location.
Any digital content that a user can manipulate as a single unit to perform a task. An object can appear as text, an icon, or both.open
- To establish access to an object, such as a queue, topic, or hyperlink.
- To make a file available to a program for processing.
The user who has the highest level of access authority to a data object or action, as defined by the object or action; usually the creator of the object.
The information that can be displayed at one time on the screen of a display device or in a window.panel
A formatted display of information on a screen that can also include entry fields.parameter (parm)
A value or reference passed to a function, command, or program that serves as input or controls actions. The value is supplied by a user or by another program or process. See also keyword.parm
In computer and network security, a specific string of characters used by a program, computer operator, or user to access the system and the information stored within it.press
To purposefully touch a touchscreen display for longer than a tap, but shorter than a hold. Typically, apps use press gestures to bring up extra menus.process
To perform operations on data.publish
To make data available to another application or system.publisher
A person that publishes information.
The set of values that a quantity or function may take.reader
A person who is allowed to view and read content.real time
The processing of information that returns a result so rapidly that the interaction appears to be instantaneous.reference
- To access a variable, such as a cell value in IBM Docs Spreadsheets.
- The set of coordinates that a cell occupies in a spreadsheet.
In a comment or response interaction, a message from a connector to a collaboration that carries the results of a comment made by the collaboration.return
To report the outcome of a called routine to the calling routine or program.row
The horizontal component of a table, consisting of a sequence of values, one for each column of the table.ruler
A line that shows the relative horizontal position of the tabs, margins, paper edges, and cursor.
To make a local copy of a file that is attached to a document.save as
To create a new object from an existing object and leave the existing object as it was. See also save.search
- A function or mode that enables the user to locate occurrences of such things as particular character strings, embedded commands, or boldface letters in a document.
- To request the display of objects that meet user-specified criteria.
To highlight a choice so that a subsequent action will use that choice. Selecting does not initiate the action.server
A software program or a computer that provides services to other software programs or other computers.sheet
The page with multiple columns in IBM Docs Spreadsheets.sidebar
Information placed at one or both sides of an article in a printed or web publication, graphically separate from the rest of the display but with some contextual connection.sign
A symbol that is used when placing an image in a presentation.slides panel
A panel where users can view slides as thumbnails.sort
To rearrange some or all of a group of items, based upon the contents or characteristics of those items.specify
To provide required information at system prompts or make the necessary menu selections.split
To separate a cell into cells.start date
A point in time associated with the start of work and usually qualified as actual, planned, estimated, and scheduled. Start date combined with duration and dependencies permits the calculation of finish date.store
To place and retain data in a storage device, so that it is available for retrieval and updating.strikethrough
A font style that displays characters with a line through them, and that is typically used to indicate a text deletion.string
In programming languages, the form of data used for storing and manipulating text.style
A set of formatting characteristics that can be applied to text, tables, and lists in a document to change their appearance.support
In system development, to provide the necessary resources for the correct operation of a functional unit.symbol
Any combination of alphabetic or numeric characters (A-Z, a-z, or 0-9) and the characters @, #, $, ., !, ?, and _.syntax
The rules for the construction of a command or statement.
An orderly arrangement of data in rows and columns that can contain numbers, text, or a combination of both.team-based editing
The process of editing a file with other members of the same team.template
An object used to create new objects of the same type. The created object has the same characteristics as the template.text
A sequence of characters that can be read by a person and encoded into formats such as ASCII that can be interpreted by a computer.toolbar
In a graphical user interface, a horizontal row or a vertical column of buttons used to select desktop or application functions.topic
An independent unit of information that follows the rules for a specific information type and that is meaningful when it is displayed alone.trend arrow
An arrow that indicates a defined direction when placing an image in a presentation.
To recover the last edit that has taken place.update
To modify a file or data set with current information.upload
To transmit data from a computer to a central computer or network, or to an attached device such as a printer.user
Any individual, organization, process, device, program, protocol, or system that uses the services of a computing system.
The content of a data item. The value can be an integer, a string, or the handle of another data bag.version
A backup copy of a file stored in server storage. The most recent backup copy of a file is the active version. Earlier copies of the same file are inactive versions. The number of versions retained by the server is determined by the copy group attributes in the management class.
An area of the screen with visible boundaries in which an application program or information is displayed or in which a dialog is presented.word
A character string considered as a unit for a given purpose.write
To make a permanent or transient record of data in a storage device or on a data medium.